Happy New Years Eve everybody! Here’s hoping 2013 treats you well!
Happy New Years Eve everybody! Here’s hoping 2013 treats you well!
1687 – the first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope.
1759 – Arthur Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease at 45 pounds per annum and starts brewing Guinness.
1857 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, then a small logging town, as the capital of Canada.
1946 – President Harry S. Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.
1951 – The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than US $13.3 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.
1991 – All official Soviet Union institutions have ceased operations by this date and the Soviet Union is officially dissolved.
1066 – Granada massacre: A Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacres most of the Jewish population of the city.
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: The United States buys land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest.
1916 – The last coronation in Hungary is performed for King Charles IV and Queen Zita.
1919 – Lincoln’s Inn in London, England, UK admits its first female bar student.
1922 – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.
1981 – In the 39th game of his third NHL season, Wayne Gretzky scores five goals, giving him 50 on the year and setting a new NHL record previously held by Maurice Richard and Mike Bossy, who earlier had each scored 50 goals in 50 games.
Elizabeth was born about 1437 at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, the daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and his wife, the former Jacquette of Luxembourg, widow of John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford.
In about 1452, she married Sir John Grey of Groby, who was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause, which would become a source of irony, as Edward IV was the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Elizabeth had two sons from the marriage, Thomas and Richard.
Her marriage to Edward VI was done secretly at her home about 3 years after he claimed the throne. Elizabeth was crowned Queen on 26 May 1465.
In the early years of his reign, Edward depended on his cousin Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. At around the time of Edward’s secret marriage, Warwick was negotiating an alliance with France that included that Edward should marry a French Princess. When his marriage to Elizabeth, who was both a commoner and from a family of Lancastrian supporters, became public, Warwick was both embarrassed and offended, and his relationship with Edward never recovered.
With the arrival on the scene of the new queen came a host of siblings who soon married into some of the most notable families in England.
When Elizabeth’s relatives, especially her brother, Anthony Woodville, began to challenge Warwick’s pre-eminence in English political society, Warwick conspired with his son-in-law, the Duke of Clarence, the king’s younger brother. One of his followers accused Elizabeth’s mother, the Duchess of Bedford, of practicing witchcraft. Jacquetta was acquitted the following year. Warwick and Clarence twice rose in revolt and then fled to France. Warwick formed an uneasy alliance with the Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou and restored her husband Henry VI to the throne in 1470, but, the following year, Edward IV returned from exile and defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry VI was murdered soon afterwards.
Following her husband’s temporary fall from power, Elizabeth had sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, where she gave birth to a son, Edward (later Edward V of England). Her marriage to Edward IV produced a total of ten children, including another son, Richard, Duke of York, who would later join his brother as one of the Princes in the Tower. Five daughters also lived to adulthood.
Following Edward’s sudden death, possibly from pneumonia, in April 1483, Elizabeth briefly became Queen Mother as her son, Edward became king, with his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester acting as Lord Protector. Fearing the Woodvilles would attempt to seize power, Richard quickly moved to take control of the young king and had the Queen’s brother and her son arrested and beheaded. The young king was transferred to the Tower of London to await the Coronation.
Richard now moved to take the throne himself and on 25 June 1483, an act of parliament, the Titulus Regius declared Edward’s and Elizabeth’s children illegitimate on the grounds that Edward had made a previous promise (known as a precontract) to marry Lady Eleanor Butler, which was considered a legally binding contract that rendered any other marriage contract invalid.
As a consequence, the Duke of Gloucester became King Richard III. Young Edward and his brother Richard, Duke of York, remained in the Tower of London. The exact fate of the so-called Princes in the Tower has been long debated; whether they died, disappeared, or were murdered is still unknown.
On 1 March 1484, she and her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed or molested and that they would not be imprisoned in the Tower of London or in any other prison. He also promised to provide them with marriage portions and to marry them to “gentlemen born”. The family returned to Court, apparently reconciled to King Richard. After the death of Richard’s Queen Anne Neville in 1485, rumours arose that the now-widowed King was going to marry his beautiful teenaged niece Elizabeth of York.
In 1485, Henry Tudor invaded England and defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. As King, he married Elizabeth of York and had the Titulus Regius revoked. Elizabeth was accorded the title and honours of a queen dowager.
Dowager Queen Elizabeth spent her last five years living at Bermondsey. At the Abbey, Elizabeth was treated with all the respect due to a queen dowager, lived a regal life, and received a pension of £400 and small gifts from the King. Elizabeth died at Bermondsey Abbey on 8 June 1492. As by her request, she was given a simple funeral.
1170 – Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II; he subsequently becomes a saint and martyr in the Anglican Church and the Catholic Church.
1786 – French Revolution: The Assembly of Notables is convened.
1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
1845 – In accordance with International Boundary delimitation, United States annexes the Republic of Texas, following the manifest destiny doctrine. The Republic of Texas, which had been independent since the Texas Revolution of 1836, is thereupon admitted as the 28th U.S. State.
1851 – The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.
2003 – The last known speaker of Akkala Sami dies, rendering the language extinct.
1612 – Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune (he mistakenly catalogued it as a fixed star)
1918 – Constance Markievicz while detained in Holloway prison, became the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons.
1972 – Kim Il-sung, already Prime Minister of North Korea and General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, became the first President of North Korea.
Hey everybody! I will be taking a few days break for Christmas. I hope everyone is having a great holiday season, and is spending their days surrounded by family and loved ones.
1688 – As part of the Glorious Revolution, King James II of England flees England to Paris, France after being deposed in favor of his nephew, William of Orange and his daughter Mary.
1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve System.
1919 – Sex Disqualification Removal Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom.
1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are recused after 73 days, having survived by cannibalism.
1894 – The Dreyfus affair begins in France, when Alfred Dreyfus is wrongly convicted of treason.
1989 – Communist President of Romania Nicolae Ceausescu is overthrown by lon lliescu after days of bloody confrontations. The deposed dictator and his wife flee Bucharest with a helicopter as protesters erupt in cheers.
1992 – The Archives of Terror are discovered.
2010 – The repeal of the Don’t ask, don’t tell policy, the 17-year-old policy banning homosexuals serving openly in the United States military, is signed into law by President Barack Obama.
1620 – William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1919 – American anarchist Emma Goldman is deported to Russia.
1937 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world’s first full-length animated feature, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theater.
1969 – The United Nations adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.
1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.