1854 – In his Apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogmatic definition of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Virgin Mary was born free of original sin.

1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.

1980 – John Lennon, a member of the Beatles, is murder by Mark David Chapman, a mentally unstable fan, in front of his apartment building in New York City.