1851 – the first YMCA in North America is established in Montreal, Quebec.

1897 – Activist Marguerite Durand founds the feminist daily newspaper, La Fronde, in Paris.

1905 – In France, the law separating church and state is passed.

1946 – The “Subsequent Nuremberg Trials” begin with the Doctors’ Trial”, prosecuting doctors alleged to be involved in human experimentation.

1953 – Red Scare: General Electric announces that all communist employees will be discharged from the company.