1431 – Joan of Arc is handed over to Bishop Pierre Cauchon.

1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

1777 – American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.

1925 – Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

1933 – Minnie D. Craig becomes the first female elected as Speaker of the North Dakota House of Representatives, the first female to hold a Speaker position anywhere in the United States.

1961 – The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba.

1962 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.

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