1066 – Edward the Confessor dies childless, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England.

1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.

1895 – Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island.

1900 – Irish leader John Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule.

1919 – The German Workers’ Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded.