1349 – The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated.
1431 – Judges’ investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.
1768 – In London, England, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus.
1861 – American Civil War: The “Star of the West: incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the “First shots of the American Civil War.”
1905 – According to the Julian calendar which was used at the time, Russian workers stage a march on the Winter Palace that ends in the massacre by Czarist troops known as Bloody Sunday, setting off the Revolution of 1905.
1947 – Elizabeth “Betty” Short, the Black Dahlia, is last seen alive.