1349 – The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated.

1431 – Judges’ investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.

1768 – In London, England, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus.

1861 – American Civil War: The “Star of the West: incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the “First shots of the American Civil War.”

1905 – According to the Julian calendar which was used at the time, Russian workers stage a march on the Winter Palace that ends in the massacre by Czarist troops known as Bloody Sunday, setting off the Revolution of 1905.

1947 – Elizabeth “Betty” Short, the Black Dahlia, is last seen alive.

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