49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war.

1645 – Archbishop William Laud is beheaded at the Tower of London.

1776 – Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.

1810 – Napoleon Bonaparte divorces his first wife Josephine.

1920 – The Treaty of Versailles takes effect, officially ending World War I.

1946 – The first General Assembly of the United Nations opens in London. 51 nations are represented.

1984 – The United States and Vatican City establish full diplomatic relations after 117 years.