1486 – King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV.

1562 – Pope Pius IV reopens the Council of Trent for its third and final session.

1778 – James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the “Sandwich Islands.”

1788 – the first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from England to Australia arrives at Botany Bay.

1919 – World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.

1944 – Soviet forces liberate Leningrad, effectively ending a three-year Nazi siege, known as the Siege of Leningrad.

1978 – The European Court of Human Rights finds the United Kingdom government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture.

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